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Gross debt in Estonia

The government gross debt refers to the total of all sums of money that have to be paid to other countries, communities or institutions. On the other hand not included in the gross debt are the demands of a country to foreign ones.

The gross debt in Estonia in the period from 1998 to 2021 was between 291.5 million and 6.5 billion USD. The highest level of the last years at seven billion US Dollar was reached in 2021. The budget deficit in the same year was 853.2 million USD.

Based on the number of inhabitants, this is in Estonia a debt of 4,925 USD per person. For comparison: The average debt per person in the same year in the European Union was 33,714 USD.


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Gross debt of the last 23 years in billion USD




YearEstonia totalEstonia per capitaEU per capita
19980.31 bn USD222 USD14,079 USD
19990.34 bn USD246 USD14,032 USD
20000.29 bn USD209 USD11,232 USD
20010.30 bn USD215 USD11,255 USD
20020.42 bn USD304 USD12,258 USD
20030.55 bn USD404 USD15,286 USD
20040.62 bn USD456 USD17,595 USD
20050.66 bn USD490 USD18,327 USD
20060.79 bn USD586 USD18,877 USD
20070.85 bn USD631 USD20,898 USD
20081.10 bn USD824 USD24,086 USD
20091.43 bn USD1,069 USD25,361 USD
20101.30 bn USD978 USD26,496 USD
20111.43 bn USD1,077 USD29,231 USD
20122.26 bn USD1,712 USD28,174 USD
20132.57 bn USD1,949 USD29,981 USD
20142.83 bn USD2,153 USD30,648 USD
20152.30 bn USD1,752 USD25,920 USD
20162.41 bn USD1,829 USD26,262 USD
20172.46 bn USD1,864 USD27,025 USD
20182.51 bn USD1,901 USD28,454 USD
20192.66 bn USD2,002 USD27,178 USD
20205.82 bn USD4,379 USD30,798 USD
20216.55 bn USD4,925 USD33,714 USD


Comparison of gross debt per capita with the European Union in U.S. dollars



      Estonia       European Union


Budget deficit in Estonia

The budget deficit of a country is the result of all its claims and liabilities. This includes incomes and expenses, repayments and building of new debts in other countries, but also domestic positions of the government, such as social insurances, local authorities and communities. It is the financial balance of the economic accounts. In simple terms: If a country at the end of the year has more money, than at at the beginning, it is a surplus - it is less, it is called deficit.

The budget balance in Estonia in the period between 1998 and 2021 varied between -1.72 billion Euro and +604.94 million Euro. In 2021 was reached a balance of -853 million Euro.

In ratio to population, this equals a new indebtedness of 642 Euro per capita in Estonia only in 2021. For comparison, the average debt per capita in the European Union was in the same year at 1,788 Euro.


Budget deficit and surplus in the last 23 years

YearEstonia totalEstonia per capitaEU per capita
1998-38.24 M USD-28 USD-398 USD
1999-197.71 M USD-142 USD-204 USD
2000-13.02 M USD-9 USD112 USD
2001-3.94 M USD-3 USD-299 USD
200219.86 M USD14 USD-565 USD
2003164.93 M USD120 USD-840 USD
2004288.46 M USD212 USD-920 USD
2005157.38 M USD116 USD-822 USD
2006493.45 M USD366 USD-568 USD
2007604.94 M USD451 USD-360 USD
2008-647.15 M USD-484 USD-1,085 USD
2009-431.69 M USD-323 USD-2,021 USD
201037.12 M USD28 USD-1,970 USD
2011251.95 M USD190 USD-1,462 USD
2012-66.17 M USD-50 USD-1,220 USD
201345.42 M USD34 USD-1,027 USD
2014188.51 M USD143 USD-852 USD
201525.96 M USD20 USD-577 USD
2016-99.18 M USD-75 USD-423 USD
2017-128.00 M USD-97 USD-263 USD
2018-169.47 M USD-128 USD-139 USD
201937.84 M USD29 USD-197 USD
2020-1,715.36 M USD-1,290 USD-2,313 USD
2021-853.20 M USD-642 USD-1,788 USD


(negative numbers = deficit)
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