The climate in Estonia

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures

All climate diagrams on this page result from the collected data of 2 weather stations.
All data correspond to the average monthly values of the last 20 years.

Back to overview: Estonia

Climate zone: Moderate zone of the northern hemisphere

The climate in Estonia is quite varied, but generally does not offer extreme climatic conditions. It is cold, wet and some nice summer months are also present. It won't be really warm here and given to the water temperatures of 16 degrees maximum you will leave your bathing togs at home. The warmest and rainiest part of the country is Tartu. The coldest is Harju. Due to the warmer temperatures the best time for traveling is from May to September. Less attractive are the cold months from November to March.
Duration of daylight and sunshine in Estonia
Compare climate with other regions or countries
Hours of sunshine per daySunshine hours per day in Estonia
Rainy days per monthRainy days per month in Estonia
Precipitation in mm/dayPrecipitation in Estonia
Water temperatureWater temperatures in Estonia
Relative humidity in %Relative humidity in Estonia
Absolute humidity in g/m³Absolute humidity in Estonia

Regions in Estonia

All figures per year. For detailed climate data click on the name of the region.

max Ø day
min Ø night
Harju10.0 °C3.0 °C1,898 h124 686 l81.0 %
Tartu10.2 °C2.6 °C1,752 h127 683 l80.0 %

Temperature records of the last 65 years

The hottest temperature measured from 1957 to March 2022 was reported by the Tallinn Harku weather station. In July 2018 the record temperature of 34.2 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 3 weather stations in Estonia , was recorded in 2018 with an average temperature of 17.7 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every 4 to 6 hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 15.3 degrees Celsius. The average maximum daily temperature at that time was 21.4 °C.

The coldest day in these 65 years was reported by the weather station Tallinn Harku. Here the temperature dropped to -27.3 °C in February 2012. Tallinn Harku lies at an altitude of 34 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 1963 with an average temperature of -8.6 °C. In Estonia, it is usual to have about 6.3 degrees more at -2.3 °C for this three-month period.

The most precipitation fell in July 2004. With 8.5 mm per day, the Tallinn Harku weather station recorded the highest monthly average of the last 65 years.

Long-term development of temperatures from 1991 - 2021

In contrast to single record values, a long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. A simply calculated average value would give a falsified result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would already decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and falsifies the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 2 measuring points in order to have actually comparable data over as long a period as possible.

In the years 1991 to 2021 there were only these 2 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values (Tallinn Harku, Tartu Toravere). From these weather reports we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was July 2010 with 22.1 °C. January 2010 was the coldest month with an average temperature of -12.4 °C.

The average annual temperature was about 5.9 °C in the years after 1991 and about 7.1 °C in the last years before 2021. So in less than 31 years it has increased by about 1.2 °C. This trend only applies to the selected 2 weather stations in Estonia. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of the global warming has been provided separately.

Long-term development of temperatures in Estonia

Data basis: German Weather Service, individual values averaged and supplemented by own elements.
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