Public Holidays

Public holidays in India

Indian holidays are extremely complex. Somehow and somewhere basically every day is a public holiday because every community can set its own days. Nationwide public holidays are just Republic Day, Independence Day and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday. All other holidays are only valid regionally or even only in certain religious denominations.
A special feature of Indian holidays is the orientation to the Hindu lunar calendar, which is unusual for us. Until 1957 there were even several dozen different calendars in India, which were only then combined. Because even the Hindu calendar is still calculated differently depending on the region, the dates cannot be determined exactly to the day in our Gregorian calendar.
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Non-movable holidays

Non-statutory holidays are written in gray.
Jan. 1stNew Year's Day
Jan. 5thGuru Govind Singh Jayanti
Jan. 26thDay of the Republic
Jan. 31stMe-dam-me-phi (Ancestor Festival of Ahom)
April 14thBengali New Year (Tripura + West Bengal only)
May 1stLabor Day
May 7thBirthday of Rabindra Nath Tagore
Aug. 15thIndependence Day
Oct. 2ndBirthday of Mahatma Gandhi
Dec. 24thBirthday of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Dec. 25thChristian Christmas
Dec. 31stNew Year's Eve

Moving Holidays in India

Good FridayApril 15thApril 7thMarch 29thApril 18thApril 3rd
Festival of breaking the fastMay 2ndApril 21stApril 9thMarch 30thMarch 19th
Mother's DayMay 8thMay 14thMay 12thMay 11thMay 10th
Father's DayJune 19thJune 18thJune 16thJune 15thJune 21st
Festival of SacrificeJuly 9thJune 28thJune 16thJune 6thMay 26th
Awal Muharram (Islamic New Year)July 29thJuly 18thJuly 7thJune 26thJune 16th
Diwali (Hindu festival of lights)Oct. 24thNov. 12thNov. 1stOct. 21stNov. 8th

Movable holidays with (so far and for us) uncalculatable dates:

Vasant Panchami5th day of the Hindu month Magha, January/February
Makar Sankranti / PongalJanuary Solstice
Spring Festival Holi1st full moon day of Hindu month Phalgun, February/March
Shiva's Big Night13th day of Hindu month Phalgun, February/March
Ugadi1st new moon after the equinox in spring
Rama Navami (Rama's Birthday)9th day of Hindu month Chaitra, March/April
Mahavir Jayanti13th day of the waxing moon in the Hindu month of Chaitra, March/April
Birthday of BuddhaFull moon day of the Hindu month Vaisakh
Raksha BandhanFull moon day of Hindu month Shravana, August
Janmashtami, birth of the god Krishna8th day of Hindu month Shravan, August/September
Birth of the God Ganesh4th day of the waxing moon in the Hindu month of Bhaadrapada, August / September
Ganesh Chaturthi4th day of Hindu month Bhadrapad, September
DashaharaDay 10 of the moonlit half of the Hindu month of Ashvayuja
Birthday of Guru Nanak DevFull moon in the Hindu month Kartik

Probably the most important secular holiday in the Indian calendar is the national holiday - the day of the republic on January 26. The occasion is the entry into force of the constitution in 1950, and on this date the capital celebrates with a big parade. The birthday of Mahatma Gandhi on October 2 is also celebrated nationwide.
In addition, there are numerous Hindu holidays, but none of them is also anchored nationwide as a public holiday. Nevertheless, they are mostly celebrated nationwide and in most regions of India these are also days off from work. Due to the Hindu and therefore polytheistic belief of the majority of the population, there are numerous peculiarities and different holidays in the respective religious forms.
First and foremost in its importance is the festival of lights Diwali. The light triumphs as good over the darkness - the evil. With this extremely rough description, the similarities almost end. The characteristics and interpretations are different in the whole country. In many regions of the south, the victory of Krishna over Naraka is at stake, while most northern inhabitants tend to associate the day with the exile of the god Rama.
Among Indian Muslims, the festival of sacrifice (al-Adha) and the end of Lent (al-Fitre) are the most prominent. For the few Christians in the country, Easter and Christmas are also celebrated. In addition, there are some less common holidays from the most diverse religions in the diverse India.
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