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Largest economies by gross domestic product

The world's largest economies

The economic strength of a country is determined by its gross domestic product (GDP). In other words, the amount of all income generated in the country from the sale of goods and services.

With a GDP of 23.32 trillion dollars, the USA is by far the world's largest economy in this ranking for 2021. It is followed by China in second place with a GDP of 17.73 trillion dollars. Canada is also quite far ahead in the international comparison and occupies the ninth place in this ranking.

The richest countries in the world
Average income in comparison
Map of countries by gross domestic product

Biggest economies in 2021 by gross domestic product


RankCountryGDP in billion $GDP in $ per capita
1United States23,315.170,249
2China17,734.112,556
3Japan4,940.939,313
4Germany4,259.951,204
5India3,176.32,257
6United Kingdom3,131.446,510
7France2,957.943,659
8Italy2,107.735,657
9Canada1,988.351,988
10South Korea1,811.034,998
11Russia1,778.812,400
12Brazil1,609.07,507
13Australia1,552.760,443
14Spain1,427.430,104
15Mexico1,272.810,046
16Indonesia1,186.14,333
17Netherlands1,012.857,768
18Saudi Arabia833.523,186
19Turkey819.09,661
20Switzerland800.691,992
21Poland679.418,000
22Sweden635.761,029
23Belgium594.151,247
24Thailand505.97,066
25Ireland504.2100,172
26Israel488.552,171
27Argentina487.210,636
28Venezuela482.416,056
29Norway482.289,154
30Austria480.453,638
31Nigeria440.82,066
32South Africa419.07,055
33Bangladesh416.32,458
34United Arab Emirates415.044,316
35Egypt404.13,699
36Denmark398.368,008
37Singapore397.072,794
38Philippines394.13,461
39Malaysia373.011,109
40Hong Kong *369.249,801
41Vietnam366.13,756
42Iran359.74,091
43Pakistan348.31,505
44Chile317.116,265
45Colombia314.56,104
46Finland297.353,655
47Romania284.114,858
48Czechia281.826,821
49Portugal253.724,568
50New Zealand249.948,781

Calculated differently: Economic strength per capita

Large countries with many inhabitants naturally also have high sales and a correspondingly a high gross domestic product. A large but not populous country like Canada, with its current population of 38.2 million, has little chance of matching the combined economic output of 331.9 million US-Americans or 1.4 billion Chinese. However, if you compare the economic output per capita, the picture is suddenly completely different. The USA slips from its top position to 11th place. China, with 12,556 USD per inhabitant, only reaches 79th place. And right at the top are the Principality of Monaco ($ 234,315), Liechtenstein ($ 157,755), and Luxembourg with $ 133,590 per inhabitant. Canada moves from ninth to 23rd place.

(Based on all 212 countries evaluated. The table above only shows the most important 50 of them.)

Gross domestic product or gross national product?

Largest economies by gross domestic product The gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of all revenues generated domestically within a year. The respective person’s nationality does not matter. Thus, if a guest worker lives in a country, his or her economic performance is included in the GDP. On the other hand, GDP does not include services provided by nationals abroad.

In the case of gross national product (GNP), on the other hand, all income is deducted against that which has subsequently flowed abroad. The services of guest workers are thus reallocated to the worker’s home country. In individual economic sectors, this is quite appropriate. However, if one evaluates the economic performance of a country, the country not only provides the workers, but also land, machines, innovations and sales markets. Last but not least, the income is usually also taxed there. Therefore, one takes the GDP.


* Hong Kong is not an independent and sovereign country, but special administrative region of China. Further information on the definition of a country can be found in our article What is a country?

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