Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC)The heavily indebted developing countries (also named "poor" countries) are a subgroup of the developing countries defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The aim of this classification in 1999 was a debt relief proposed by Germany and proposed by the G8 countries. The initiator at the time was Germany.
Of the current 36 countries, most are in Africa. A total of about 760.19 m people live in affected countries, which corresponds to 9.8% of the world's population.
|Country||Population||GNI per capita||Human Development Index||Debts|
|Afghanistan||38.9 M||500 USD||0.511||13.6%|
|Benin||12.1 M||1,280 USD||0.545||27.4%|
|Bolivia||11.7 M||3,200 USD||0.718||35.8%|
|Burkina Faso||20.9 M||790 USD||0.452||23.9%|
|Burundi||11.9 M||270 USD||0.433||19.2%|
|Cameroon||26.5 M||1,500 USD||0.563||33.5%|
|Central African Republic||4.8 M||510 USD||0.397||37.0%|
|Chad||16.4 M||660 USD||0.398||32.1%|
|Comoros||0.9 M||1,450 USD||0.554||25.6%|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||89.6 M||550 USD||0.480||11.1%|
|Ethiopia||115.0 M||890 USD||0.485||29.7%|
|Gambia||2.4 M||750 USD||0.496||40.0%|
|Ghana||31.1 M||2,230 USD||0.611||41.1%|
|Guinea||13.1 M||1,020 USD||0.477||23.5%|
|Guinea-Bissau||2.0 M||760 USD||0.480||44.2%|
|Guyana||0.8 M||6,600 USD||0.682||31.2%|
|Haiti||11.4 M||1,250 USD||0.510||15.4%|
|Honduras||9.9 M||2,200 USD||0.634||42.1%|
|Ivory Coast||26.4 M||2,280 USD||0.538||33.7%|
|Liberia||5.1 M||530 USD||0.480||50.0%|
|Madagascar||27.7 M||480 USD||0.528||29.9%|
|Malawi||19.1 M||580 USD||0.483||32.5%|
|Mali||20.3 M||830 USD||0.434||31.0%|
|Mauritania||4.6 M||1,640 USD||0.546||71.6%|
|Mozambique||31.3 M||460 USD||0.456||135.7%|
|Nicaragua||6.6 M||1,850 USD||0.660||97.0%|
|Niger||24.2 M||540 USD||0.394||26.7%|
|Republic of the Congo||5.5 M||1,830 USD||0.574||64.8%|
|Rwanda||13.0 M||780 USD||0.543||62.0%|
|Sao Tome and Principe||0.2 M||2,070 USD||0.625||60.4%|
|Senegal||16.7 M||1,430 USD||0.512||58.8%|
|Sierra Leone||8.0 M||490 USD||0.452||44.4%|
|Tanzania||59.7 M||1,080 USD||0.529||31.8%|
|Togo||8.3 M||920 USD||0.515||40.0%|
|Uganda||45.7 M||800 USD||0.544||40.8%|
|Zambia||18.4 M||1,190 USD||0.584||119.3%|
Criteria for admissionBefore being included in the debt relief initiative, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund lay down strict criteria. The aim is to cancel debts only of those states that are already heavily indebted and are in all likelihood unable to pay these liabilities on their own. On the other hand, these states should also have the ability to grow out of poverty after a waiver. A state must therefore not only be particularly poor, but must also fulfil certain conditions at the political level.
These conditions are usually determined and monitored over several years in a three-stage process. Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan, for example, have been on the list for some time now of countries which, after all, fulfil the conditions of poverty. None of these 3 countries has so far been able to convincingly demonstrate or even show that the government is also capable of fighting poverty. To achieve this, it is also necessary to implement effective reforms in advance and to demonstrate success.
Doubts about sustainabilityThe aim of the initiative is to reduce poverty in the affected countries and to enable governments to stand on their own two feet through debt relief. The reform programmes controlled by the Community are designed to achieve effective action. An already economically weakened country may also use this debt relief to borrow money again from other states and not pay it back either.
Another injustice is that individual countries are rewarded with debt relief even though they have not managed to stand on their own two feet. Those countries that are just above the poverty line because their reforms have been successful are not rewarded.