The climate in the United Kingdom

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures

All climate diagrams on this page come from the collected data of 28 weather stations.
All data correspond to the average monthly values of the last 20 years.

Back to overview: United Kingdom

The climate in the United Kingdom is generally mild and temperate, with cool temperatures and above-average precipitation throughout the year. The country is influenced by Atlantic and polar ocean currents, as well as continental air masses, which can lead to rapidly changing conditions. Long-term fluctuations, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), can also have a significant impact on weather patterns, leading to droughts or unusually cold winters.


There are four distinct seasons in the United Kingdom, with significant variations in temperature and precipitation throughout the year. Winter lasts from December to February and is generally cool and damp. Average temperatures during this period range from 2 °C to 7 °C, with colder temperatures and relatively frequent snowfall in Scotland and parts of northern England.
Spring generally begins in March and lasts until May. Temperatures then range from 7°C to 16°C. This season is often characterized by frequent rain showers and lots of wind.
Summer lasts from June to August and average temperatures are between 18 and 22 degrees Celsius. Although the weather can be warm and sunny, it is also often unsettled with periods of rain and dense cloud cover.
The following autumn lasts until November and offers clear days and cool evenings with temperatures between 7°C and 14°C.

The United Kingdom is prone to extreme weather events such as heat waves and heavy rainfall, which can also lead to flooding. Although these events are relatively rare, they have been occurring more frequently in recent years, causing extensive damage.

The Kingdom is known for numerous rainy days

The United Kingdom is located in a region where several weather systems meet, including cold polar air from the north, warm tropical air from the south, and moist air from the Atlantic Ocean. This often results in low-pressure areas with high rainfall. Additional influence has the location in the edge of the Gulf Stream, which brings warm water over the Atlantic Ocean and contributes to the formation of clouds and precipitation.
Duration of daylight and sunshine in the United Kingdom
Compare climate with other regions or countries
Hours of sunshine per daySunshine hours per day in the United Kingdom
Rain days per monthRain days per month in the United Kingdom
Precipitation in mm/dayPrecipitation in the United Kingdom
Water temperatureWater temperatures in the United Kingdom
Relative humidity in %Relative humidity in the United Kingdom
Absolute humidity in g/m³Absolute humidity in the United Kingdom

Regions in the United Kingdom

All figures per year. For detailed climate data click on the name of the region.

max Ø day
min Ø night
England14.0 °C7.3 °C1,533 h133 850 l
Northern Ireland12.7 °C7.2 °C1,314 h175 989 l
Scotland11.7 °C5.9 °C1,241 h170 1,033 l
Wales13.3 °C7.5 °C1,497 h143 825 l

Temperature records of the last 74 years

The hottest temperature measured from 1949 to January 2023 was reported by the Waddington weather station. In July 2022, the record temperature of 40.3 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 28 weather stations in the United Kingdom , was recorded in 2006 with an average temperature of 16.4 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every four to six hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 14.6 degrees Celsius. The average maximum daily temperature at that time was 20.0 °C.

The coldest day in these 74 years was reported by the Aberdeen Dyce weather station. Here the temperature dropped to -15.2 °C in February 2021. Aberdeen Dyce lies at an altitude of 65 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 1963 with an average temperature of 2.1 °C. In the United Kingdom, it is usual to have about 3.1 degrees more at 5.2 °C for this three-month period.

The most precipitation fell in July 2015. With 322.5 mm per day, the Lyneham weather station recorded the highest monthly average of the last 74 years. Incidentally, the region with the most rainfall for the whole year is around Tiree. The driest region is near Manston.

Long-term development of temperatures from 1951 - 2022

In contrast to single record values, long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. An average value would give a distorted result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and distorts the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 3 measuring points in order to have comparable data over as long a period as possible.

In the years 1951 to 2022, there were only these 3 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values (Lerwick, Belfast, Stornoway). From these weather reports, we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was August 1997 at 15.5 °C. February 1969 was the coldest month with an average temperature of 1.1 °C.

The average annual temperature was about 8.1 °C in the years after 1951 and about 9.1 °C in the last years before 2022. So in less than 72 years, it has increased by about 1.0 °C. This trend only applies to the selected 3 weather stations in the United Kingdom. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of global warming has been provided separately.

Long-term development of temperatures in the United Kingdom

Data basis and methodology

The data from the individual measuring stations are based on the archives of the German Weather Service, individual values averaged and supplemented by own elements. In order to determine a representative national average, average values were first calculated for each part of the country, which were then summarized at the national level. Thus, if a disproportionate number of weather stations are located in a small area, their number does not affect the national average.
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