Climate zone: The northern part of Russia is located in the cold polar zone of the Arctic. The southern areas in the temperate climatic zone.
The climate in Russia is not really suitable for petted US Westcoasters or Central Europeans. It is mostly cold and in winter months the mercury column won't reach anything above freezing point. In the cold season even the maximum temperatures are well below zero. Due to the warmer temperatures the best time for traveling is from May to September. Winter athletes will find their favorite weather conditions from November to March.
› Duration of daylight and sunshine in Russia
hours of sunshine per day rainy days per month Precipitation in mm/day Relative humidity in % Water temperature Absolute humidity in g/m³ (approx.)
Temperature records of the last 199 years
The hottest temperature measured from 1820 to December 2019 was reported by the Erzin weather station. In July 2007 the record temperature of 45.3 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 305 weather stations in Russia below 1760 metres altitude, was recorded in 1938 with an average temperature of 20.0 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every 4 to 6 hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 12.6 degrees Celsius.
The coldest day in these 199 years was reported by the weather station Ojmjakon. Here the temperature dropped to -68.7 °C in February 2002. Ojmjakon lies at an altitude of 740 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 1969 with an average temperature of -22.6 °C. In Russia, it is usual to have about 5.8 degrees more at -16.8 °C for this three-month period.
Long-term development of temperatures from 1975 - 2019
In contrast to single record values, a long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. A simply calculated average value would give a falsified result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would already decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and falsifies the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 3 measuring points in order to have actually comparable data over as long a period as possible.
In the years 1975 to 2019 there were only these 3 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values (Arhangelsk, Jakutsk, Juzhno Sahalinsk). From these weather reports we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was Juli 2011 with 19.6 °C. Januar 1985 was the coldest month with an average temperature of -28.6 °C.
The average annual temperature was about -2.4 °C in the years after 1975 and about -0.3 °C in the last years before 2019. So in less than 45 years it has increased by about 2.1 °C. This trend only applies to the selected 3 weather stations in Russia. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of the global warming
has been provided separately.
More detailed information on global warming with a view by continent can also be found on our topic page on climate change