Colors of the following climate diagrams: Portugal Italy
Daily maximum temperatures
The highest daytime temperatures in Italy are reached in July with an average of 27.9 °C. The coldest month, on the other hand, is January, with an average of just 8.5 °C. In Portugal, August is the warmest month, with 28.7 °C. There, it is coolest in January with an average of 15.4 °C.
Night time lows
At night, it cools down to varying degrees depending on the country and altitude. In Italy, temperatures drop as low as 2.1 °C in January. The warmest nights are in July at 18.6 °C. In Portugal, it is coolest at night in January at 8.5 °C and warmest in August at 18.5 °C. This corresponds to a cooling of 6.2 to 9.3 °C in Italy and 6.5 to 10.3 °C in Portugal.
The humidity of the air depends to a large extent on the air temperature. The warmer the air, the more water it can absorb. At a temperature of 25°C it is 23 grams per cubic meter, at 30 degrees it is already 26 grams. Therefore, the air humidity is given as a relative value to the temperature-dependent maximum amount. It becomes unpleasant when high humidity is combined with high temperatures.
Humidex is an approximate, sensed temperature calculated on the basis of air temperature, dew point and humidity. It was developed in 1965 by the Canadian meteorologists J. M. Masterton and F. A. Richardson. Since the wind speed is ignored here, it is not very meaningful in areas below approx. 15°C. Above that, it is more reliable, since at higher temperatures humidity plays a greater role than wind.
Rain days per month
By definition, a rain day is a day on which at least 0.1 liters of precipitation per m² fall. This corresponds to a 1 square meter puddle in which the water stands 0.1 mm high — insofar as the water does not seep away or evaporate. So it does not have to rain all day long. November brings the most rainy days (7.7) in Italy. With an average of only 4.0 days, July is the friendliest. In Portugal, it rains most often in November with 9.1 days.
Precipitation amount per day
Depending on the season and the location of a country, the wind brings a varying amount of water with it. As a rule, the water evaporating in the oceans is absorbed and then transported inland. The greatest amount of rain (hail or dew are also forms of precipitation) in Italy occurs in May, when about 17.3 liters per square meter fall per day. In Portugal, the average amount of precipitation ranges from 0.4 liters per day in July to 3.4 in November. However, these are average values. If you consider that there are only 6.6 rainy days in Italy in May, each of them accounts for about 79.4 liters.
Sunshine hours per day
With 2,628 hours of sunshine per year, Portugal is in the lead. The most hours of sunshine (10.2 per day) are in July. Italy falls into second place with only 2,227 hours. There the sun is visible in December for only 3.5 hours per day, so not hidden behind clouds.
Hours of daylight
The length of a day varies throughout the year and depends on the distance from the equator. In December, the day in Italy is only 9.3 hours long. In June, on the other hand, it is 15.1 hours. In Portugal, it is 9.7 hours in December and 14.7 in June.