Parliamentary republic
Independent since 1923

Republic of Turkey
Local name:
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Western Asia
785,350 km²
Turkey on the world map


Turkey is a country between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The land has a total area of 785,350 km² (303,225 mi²) and a total coastline of 7,200 km (4,473.9 mi). This land area is approximately 113% of the area of Texas. Turkey is thus one of the largest countries in Asia and the 37th biggest in the world. A considerable share of the inhabitants (77%) belongs to the urban population. Around one in six residents lives in Istanbul alone.

Turkey is comparatively high at an average elevation of 1132 meters above sea level. The highest mountain peak (Ararat) is at 5,137 meters. The country has about 500 partially uninhabited islands. There are direct national borders with the eight neighboring countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq and Syria. The distance between New York City and the Capital Ankara is about 8,400 km (5,220 mi).


Life expectancy females:
Ø 79.1 years
Birth rate:
15.0 ‰
Death rate:
6.4 ‰
50.1% : 49.9%

Population pyramid

Population pyramid Turkey 2021
The currency in Turkey is the Turkish lira (TRY).
1 Lira is divided into 100 Kurus.
Status: 03/23/2023
1 US dollar = 18.97 Liras
100 Liras = 5.27 US dollar

The climate in Turkey

A large part of Turkey is located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, which means that maritime sea air affects the country from both sides. Because of this, summers are very warm with temperatures often above 30°C and very little rainfall. Winters, on the other hand, are noticeably cooler and also more humid. The inland, especially southern and eastern Anatolia, is dominated by higher and therefore cooler mountain regions. With up to +45C° in summer and -40°C in winter, the mountains of Ararat have the greatest temperature fluctuations in Turkey. This area receives the most rain in summer as well.

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures
Average daytime and nighttime temperatures in Turkey


Official language:

Mother tongueDistribution
Turkish87.6 %
Kurdish10.6 %
Arabic1.4 %
other0.4 %





GDP:819.04 bn $
Exportations:203.82 bn $
Importations:230.14 bn $
Tourism receipts:13.77 bn $
Unemployment rate:12.0 %
Inflation rate:19.60 %
Corruption index:36 (bad)
Energy consumption:231.1 bn kWh

According to the definition from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Turkey is a developing country because of its lower economic performance. Despite this classification, the country is currently also one of the emerging markets, i.e. countries with increasing industrialization.

With a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.838, Turkey counts as one of the high developed economies by UN definition.

In terms of revenues, the Philippines ranks only 55th in the world and, with an average annual income of 9,900 USD is one of the upper middle-income countries.

Land use

6% Urban areas:44,090 km²
50% Agricultural areas:393,303 km²
29% Forest:226,731 km²
2% Water areas:15,720 km²
15% Others:121,226 km²



Roadways:67,333 km
Railways:10,378 km
Waterways:1,200 km
Commercial harbors:1,217

Most important cities

Ankara / CapitalCentral Anatolia5,663,000
IstanbulMarmara region14,670,000
BursaMarmara region3,102,000
IzmirAegean region2,931,000
GaziantepSoutheast Anatolia2,069,000
AdanaMediterranean region1,769,000
KonyaCentral Anatolia1,269,000
AntalyaMediterranean region1,068,000
DiyarbakirSoutheast Anatolia1,010,000
MercinMediterranean region974,000
KayseriCentral Anatolia930,000
ÇankayaCentral Anatolia792,000
EskisehirCentral Anatolia747,000
BagcilarMarmara region724,000
GebzeMarmara region687,000
DenizliAegean region611,000
SamsunBlack Sea Region595,000
SanliurfaSoutheast Anatolia574,000
KahramanmarasMediterranean region518,000
AdapazariMarmara region510,000
VanEastern Anatolia481,000
KarabaglarAegean region458,000
MalatyaEastern Anatolia453,000

Political indicators

(Based on the "Worldwide Governance Indicators" project of the World Bank)

Political stability:
Rule of law:
Regulatory quality:
Voice accountability:
Death penalty:abolished in 2004


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