Thailand is climatically divided into several zones. In the north, the cold air flow from the Chinese highlands determines the weather. The west coast enjoys the sea air of the Indian Ocean and the east coast the south Chinese sea.
Nationwide there are basically 3 seasons: Midsummer, hot midsummer, and hot midsummer with rain. However, the rain is warm and often pleasant. Rarely a shower lasts longer than 3 hours, the rest of the day it is again cheerful to sunny.
It is warm to hot all year round and invites in the coastal regions to bath in the open sea with average water temperatures of 28 degrees. Sweaters or even jackets are only needed in the evenings in the high altitudes in the north of the country.
› Duration of daylight and sunshine in Thailand
hours of sunshine per day rainy days per month Precipitation in mm/day Relative humidity in % Water temperature Absolute humidity in g/m³ (approx.)
Temperature records of the last 70 years
The hottest temperature measured from 1949 to December 2019 was reported by the Nakhon Sawan weather station. In May 2016 the record temperature of 43.7 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 14 weather stations in Thailand below 390 metres altitude, was recorded in 1987 with an average temperature of 28.9 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every 4 to 6 hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 28.1 degrees Celsius.
The coldest day in these 70 years was reported by the weather station Phitsanulok. Here the temperature dropped to 5.8 °C in January 2000. Phitsanulok lies at an altitude of 46 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 1972 with an average temperature of 23.5 °C. In Thailand, it is usual to have about 3.3 degrees more at 26.8 °C for this three-month period.
Long-term development of temperatures from 1979 - 2019
In contrast to single record values, a long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. A simply calculated average value would give a falsified result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would already decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and falsifies the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 4 measuring points in order to have actually comparable data over as long a period as possible.
In the years 1979 to 2019 there were only these 4 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values (Udon Thani, Phitsanulok, Chanthaburi, Chumphon). From these weather reports we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was April 2016 with 31.6 °C. Dezember 1999 was the coldest month with an average temperature of 22.5 °C.
The average annual temperature was about 27.6 °C in the years after 1979 and about 27.8 °C in the last years before 2019. So it has hardly changed at all in the past 41 years. This trend only applies to the selected 4 weather stations in Thailand. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of the global warming
has been provided separately.
More detailed information on global warming with a view by continent can also be found on our topic page on climate change