The climate in Saudi Arabia

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures

All climate diagrams on this page result from the collected data of 34 weather stations.
Weather stations at an altitude above 2090m have not been included.
All data correspond to the average monthly values of the last 20 years.

Back to overview: Saudi Arabia

Climate zone: The northern parts of Saudi Arabia are in the subtropics, the southern regions in the tropics.

It is yearlong warm or hot. The warmest and rainiest part of the country is Makkah. The coldest is Al Jawf.
Duration of daylight and sunshine in Saudi Arabia
Compare climate with other regions or countries
Hours of sunshine per daySunshine hours per day in Saudi Arabia
Rainy days per monthRainy days per month in Saudi Arabia
Precipitation in mm/dayPrecipitation in Saudi Arabia
Relative humidity in %Relative humidity in Saudi Arabia
Absolute humidity in g/m³Absolute humidity in Saudi Arabia

Regions in Saudi Arabia

All figures per year. For detailed climate data click on the name of the region.

max Ø day
min Ø night
Al Jawf28.4 °C13.9 °C3,249 h11 62 l43.0 %
Al Madinah al Munawwarah35.1 °C21.6 °C3,358 h5 58 l40.0 %
Al-Qassim34.0 °C18.1 °C18 110 l
Ar Riyad34.4 °C19.2 °C3,285 h12 84 l29.0 %
Eastern Province34.6 °C20.1 °C2,227 h16 88 l49.0 %
Jizan35.3 °C26.9 °C14 110 l67.0 %
Makkah36.9 °C24.8 °C3,176 h8 80 l47.0 %
Mintaqat 'Asir29.5 °C15.6 °C3,285 h22 131 l39.0 %
Mintaqat Ha'il30.5 °C15.3 °C3,322 h12 69 l34.0 %
Mintaqat Tabuk30.7 °C18.4 °C3,577 h5 29 l33.0 %
Northern Borders28.5 °C14.4 °C3,285 h14 66 l43.0 %

Temperature records of the last 71 years

The hottest temperature measured from 1951 to March 2022 was reported by the Rafha weather station. In July 2020 the record temperature of 51.1 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 41 weather stations in Saudi Arabia below 2090 metres altitude, was recorded in 2017 with an average temperature of 34.4 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every 4 to 6 hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 32.8 degrees Celsius. The average maximum daily temperature at that time was 41.5 °C.

The coldest day in these 71 years was reported by the weather station Turaif. Here the temperature dropped to -6.0 °C in January 2022. Turaif lies at an altitude of 852 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 1983 with an average temperature of 14.9 °C. In Saudi Arabia, it is usual to have about 3.1 degrees more at 18.1 °C for this three-month period.

The most precipitation fell in December 2009. With 30.0 mm per day, the Yenbo Airp weather station recorded the highest monthly average of the last 71 years. Incidentally, the region with the most rainfall for the whole year is around Khamis Mushait. The driest region is near Al Wejh.

Long-term development of temperatures from 1991 - 2021

In contrast to single record values, a long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. A simply calculated average value would give a falsified result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would already decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and falsifies the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 8 measuring points in order to have actually comparable data over as long a period as possible.

In the years 1991 to 2021 there were only these 8 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values. From these weather reports we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was July 2017 with 35.1 °C. January 1992 was the coldest month with an average temperature of 13.7 °C.

The average annual temperature was about 24.6 °C in the years after 1991 and about 26.4 °C in the last years before 2021. So in less than 31 years it has increased by about 1.8 °C. This trend only applies to the selected 8 weather stations in Saudi Arabia. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of the global warming has been provided separately.

Long-term development of temperatures in Saudi Arabia

Data basis and methodology

The data of the individual measuring stations are based on the archives of the German Weather Service, individual values averaged and supplemented by own elements. In order to determine a representative national average, average values were first calculated for each part of the country, which were then summarized at the national level. Thus, if a disproportionate number of weather stations are located in a small area, their number does not affect the national average.
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