Transport and infrastructure in Mongolia

Our listing of the primary kinds of transport compares the infrastructure of Mongolia with the average of all countries in Asia. The main traffic and transport routes are in good condition, but do not reach the level of the leading industrial nations.

In terms of the length of its rail network, Mongolia ranks 31st in the world with 0.55 meters per inhabitant. In total, the rail network is 1,815 kilometers long. Freight traffic on the rails most recently totaled 17.38 billion tons and kilometers traveled. Passenger traffic reached 973.00 million passenger-kilometers in 2017.

The waterways and ports listed refer to inland traffic on rivers and canals, as there is no direct access to the sea in Mongolia.

Airports in Mongolia

Back to overview: Mongolia

Road traffic

The network of roads and highways has a total length of 113,200 km. For each of the country's 3.33 million inhabitants, this corresponds to 34.00 meters. This puts Mongolia in 14th place in the global ranking. However, it is also important to note the country's population density, which is very low at around 2 inhabitants per km². Like this, disproportionately long distances generally have to be covered to reach the more remote parts of the country.

With an average of 634 traffic fatalities per year (2012 - 2019), road traffic in Mongolia is considered rather mixed. This corresponds to around 4.3 accident fatalities per 20.6 inhabitants per year. By comparison, this figure is 12.2 in the USA and 17.1 worldwide.

In Mongolia, traffic drives on the right-hand side of the road, i.e. people drive in the right-hand lane and overtake on the left. Oncoming traffic comes toward you on the left side. Here you can also find an overview of all countries with left-hand traffic.



 totalper 1 mio
per km²
Roadways113,200 km34,001.33 km72.37 m
Railroads1,800 km545.16 km1.16 m
Waterways580 km174.21 km0.37 m
Commercial harbors30290.710.000


 total per 1 mio
per km²
Roadways14,699,500 km3,162.10 km459.66 m
Railroads280,000 km60.24 km8.76 m
Waterways260,300 km55.99 km8.14 m
Commercial harbors46,0549.910.001

Data sources used

Global Health Observatory Data Repository (World Health Organization)
Internation Union of Railways (UIC)
CIA Factbook
OECD Statistics
Wikipedia (german)
Mongolia: AirportsLargest airports and airlines in MongoliaThe 11 biggest airports and 3 airlines in Mongolia with further information and data
Mongolia: ClimateClimate and temperature development in MongoliaA climate analysis for Mongolia incl. temperatures, humidity, rain days per month, hours of sunshine, Rainfalls
Ranking: MegacitiesMega cities - the biggest cities all over the worldRanking of the biggest cities worldwide. On top: Shanghai, Chongqing and Beijing