Transport and infrastructure in Mongolia

Our listing of the primary types of transport compares the infrastructure of Mongolia with the average of all countries in Asia. The main traffic and transport routes are in good condition, but do not reach the level of the leading industrial nations.

In terms of the length of its rail network, Mongolia ranks 33rd in the world with 0.54 meters per inhabitant. In total, the rail network is 1,815 kilometers long. Freight traffic on the rails most recently totaled 18.35 billion tons and kilometers traveled. Passenger traffic reached 91.00 million passenger-kilometers in 2021.

Airports in Mongolia

Back to overview: Mongolia

Road traffic

The network of roads and highways has a total length of 113,200 km. For each of the country's 3.35 million inhabitants, this corresponds to 33.81 meters. This puts Mongolia in 15th place in the global ranking. However, it is also important to note that the country's population density is very low at around 2 inhabitants per km². In this case, disproportionately long distances generally have to be covered to reach the more remote parts of the country.

With an average of 634 traffic fatalities per year (2013 - 2019), road traffic in Mongolia is considered rather mixed. This corresponds to 20.4 accident fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants per year. By comparison, this figure is 12.3 in the USA and 17.0 worldwide.

In Mongolia, traffic drives on the right-hand side of the road, i.e. people drive in the right-hand lane and overtake on the left. Oncoming traffic comes toward you on the left side. Here you can also find an overview of all countries with left-hand traffic.



 totalper 1 mio
per km²
Roadways113,200 km33,813.43 km72.37 m
Railroads1,800 km542.15 km1.16 m
Waterways580 km173.25 km0.37 m
Commercial harbors30290.210.000


 total per 1 mio
per km²
Roadways16,613,000 km3,524.24 km519.50 m
Railroads280,000 km59.41 km8.76 m
Waterways260,300 km55.21 km8.14 m
Commercial harbors45,9989.760.001

Data sources used

Global Health Observatory Data Repository (World Health Organization)
Internation Union of Railways (UIC)
CIA Factbook
OECD Statistics
Wikipedia (german)
Mongolia: AirportsLargest airports and airlines in MongoliaThe 11 biggest airports and 3 airlines in Mongolia with further information and data with further information on airlines and destinations
Mongolia: ClimateClimate and temperature development in MongoliaA climate analysis for Mongolia incl. temperatures, humidity, rain days per month, hours of sunshine, rainfalls
Ranking: MegacitiesMega cities - the biggest cities all over the worldRanking of the biggest cities worldwide. On top: Shanghai, Chongqing and Beijing