The climate in Mongolia

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures

All climate diagrams on this page come from the collected data of 60 weather stations.
Weather stations at an altitude above 2260m have not been included.
All data correspond to the average monthly values of the last 20 years.

Back to overview: Mongolia

Climate zone: Moderate zone of the northern hemisphere

The climate in Mongolia is predominantly frosty cold and in the winter months the mercury does not even reach the positive range. In the cold season, the maximum temperatures are well below zero. The warmest and at the same time rainiest region is Southern (Gobi Desert). The coldest is Western (Altai Mountains). Due to the warmer temperatures, the best time for traveling is from April to September. Winter athletes will find their favorite weather conditions from November to March.
Duration of daylight and sunshine in Mongolia
Compare climate with other regions or countries
Hours of sunshine per daySunshine hours per day in Mongolia
Rain days per monthRain days per month in Mongolia
Precipitation in mm/dayPrecipitation in Mongolia
Relative humidity in %Relative humidity in Mongolia
Absolute humidity in g/m³Absolute humidity in Mongolia

Regions in Mongolia

All figures per year. For detailed climate data click on the name of the region.

max Ø day
min Ø night
Northern7.2 °C-6.6 °C2,628 h48 303 l
Eastern8.4 °C-5.4 °C2,811 h40 259 l61.0 %
Southern (Gobi Desert)9.9 °C-3.0 °C2,884 h28 183 l49.0 %
Western (Altai Mountains)6.2 °C-7.4 °C2,628 h35 193 l57.0 %
Central9.1 °C-4.3 °C2,811 h36 212 l59.0 %

Temperature records of the last 46 years

The hottest temperature measured from 1977 to January 2023 was reported by the Baruunkharaa weather station. In July 1999, the record temperature of 43.2 °C was reported here. The hottest summer from July to September, based on all 64 weather stations in Mongolia below 2,260 meters altitude, was recorded in 2007 with an average temperature of 17.5 °C. This average temperature will normally be measured every four to six hours, thus also including the nights. Normally, this value is 15.7 degrees Celsius. The average maximum daily temperature at that time was 24.6 °C.

The coldest day in these 46 years was reported by the Tsetsen Uul weather station. Here the temperature dropped to -54.7 °C in February 2016. Tsetsen Uul lies at an altitude of 1,928 meters above sea level. The coldest winter (January to March) was in 2023 with an average temperature of -19.9 °C. In Mongolia, it is usual to have about 5.3 degrees more at -14.6 °C for this three-month period.

The most precipitation fell in February 2011. With 357.1 mm per day, the Erdene weather station recorded the highest monthly average of the last 46 years. Incidentally, the region with the most rainfall for the whole year is around Erdene. The driest region is near Zavkhan.

Long-term development of temperatures from 1998 - 2022

In contrast to single record values, long-term development cannot simply be brought about by all weather stations in the country. Both the number and the locations are constantly changing. An average value would give a distorted result. If several measuring stations in particularly cold mountain or coastal regions are added in one year, the average would decrease as a result of this alone. If a station fails during the summer or winter months, it does not provide any values and distorts the average again. The subsequent long-term development was therefore reduced to only 14 measuring points in order to have comparable data over as long a period as possible.

In the years 1998 to 2022, there were only these 14 weather stations in the whole country, which reported continuous temperature values. From these weather reports, we have created a long-term development that shows the monthly average temperatures. The hottest month in this entire period was July 2017 at 21.6 °C. January 2011 was the coldest month with an average temperature of -26.4 °C.

The average annual temperature was about 1.2 °C in the years after 1998 and about 1.5 °C in the last years before 2022. So over the past 25 years, it has only increased by a minimal 0.3 °C. This trend only applies to the selected 14 weather stations in Mongolia. A considerably more comprehensive evaluation of global warming has been provided separately.

Long-term development of temperatures in Mongolia

Data basis and methodology

The data from the individual measuring stations are based on the archives of the German Weather Service, individual values averaged and supplemented by own elements. In order to determine a representative national average, average values were first calculated for each part of the country, which were then summarized at the national level. Thus, if a disproportionate number of weather stations are located in a small area, their number does not affect the national average.
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