Energy sources in Bhutan

Energy consumption in Bhutan

The most important figure in the energy balance of Bhutan is the total consumption of
4.32 billion kWh
of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 5,550 kWh.

Bhutan could be self-sufficient with domestically produced energy. The total production of all electric energy producing facilities is nine bn kWh, which is 207 percent of the country's own usage. Despite this, Bhutan trades energy with foreign countries. Along with pure consumption, the production, imports and exports play an important role. Other energy sources, such as natural gas or crude oil are also used.

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Energy Balance

per capita
per capita
Own consumption4.32 bn kWh5,549.94 kWh11,744.38 kWh
Production8.95 bn kWh11,514.23 kWh12,198.66 kWh
Import22.85 m kWh29.39 kWh185.15 kWh
Export4.60 bn kWh5,916.51 kWh42.59 kWh

100.0% of the country's population (as of 2020) has access to electricity.

CO₂ emissions

CO₂ emissions
in 2019
per capita
per capita
total1.05 m t1.37 t14.52 t
› of which diesel + gasoline606.00 m t789.62 t7,179.51 t
› of which coal328.00 m t427.38 t3,246.58 t

Development of CO₂ emissions from 1979 to 2019 in million tons
See also: CO₂ equivalents by country

CO₂ emissions Bhutan

Production capacities per energy source

The given production capacities for electric energy have a theoretical value, which can only be obtained under ideal conditions. They are measuring the generatable amount of energy, that would be reached under permanent and full use of all capacities of all power plants.

In practice this isn't possible, because e.g. solar collectors are less efficient under clouds. Also wind- and water-power plants are not always operating under full load. All these values are only useful in relation to other energy sources or countries.

Energy sourcetotal
in Bhutan
in Bhutan
per capita
in Bhutan
per capita
Fossil fuels0.00 kWh0,0 %59,9 %0.00 kWh2.06 kWh
Nuclear power0.00 kWh0,0 %19,5 %0.00 kWh0.67 kWh
Solar energy0.00 kWh0,0 %3,2 %0.00 kWh0.11 kWh
Wind power0.00 kWh0,0 %8,3 %0.00 kWh0.29 kWh
Water power20.45 bn kWh100,0 %7,0 %26,297.37 kWh0.24 kWh
Tidal Power Plants0.00 kWh0,0 %0,0 %0.00 kWh0.00 kWh
Geothermics0.00 kWh0,0 %0,4 %0.00 kWh0.01 kWh
Biomass0.00 kWh0,0 %1,7 %0.00 kWh0.06 kWh

Usage of renewable energies

Renewable energy includes wind, solar, biomass and geothermal energy sources. This means all energy sources that renew themselves within a short time or are permanently available. Energy from hydropower is only partly a renewable energy. This is certainly the case with river or tidal power plants. Otherwise, numerous dams or reservoirs also produce mixed forms, e.g. by pumping water into their reservoirs at night and recovering energy from them during the day when there is an increased demand for electricity. Since it is not possible to clearly determine the amount of generated energy, all energy from hydropower is displayed separately.

In 2019, renewable energy accounted for around 82.3 percent of actual total consumption in Bhutan. The following chart shows the percentage share from 1990 to 2019:

Renewable energy Bhutan
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