Energy consumption in Bhutan

The most important measure in the energy balance of Bhutan is the total consumption of
2.18 bn kWh
of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 2,862 kWh.

Bhutan could provide itself completely with self-produced energy. The total production of all electric energy producing facilities is 8 bn kWh, which is 361% of the countries own usage. Despite this, Bhutan is trading energy with foreign countries. Along with pure consumptions the production, imports and exports play an important role. Other energy sources such as natural gas or crude oil are also used.

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Energy Balance

per capita
per capita
Own consumption2.18 bn kWh2,862.04 kWh11,887.66 kWh
Production7.88 bn kWh10,330.34 kWh12,475.65 kWh
Import84.00 m kWh110.08 kWh221.55 kWh
Export5.76 bn kWh7,552.17 kWh29.54 kWh

Carbon footprint

CO2 emissions
in 2016
per capita
per capita
total1.26 m t1.71 t0.33 t
› of which diesel + gasoline480,377.00 t0.65 t0.14 t
› of which coal311,695.00 t0.42 t0.09 t
› other sources469,376.00 t0.64 t0.10 t

Development of CO2 emissions from 1979 to 2016 in million tons

Carbon footprint Bhutan

Production capacities per energy source

The given production capacities for electric energy have a theoretical value, which could only be obtainable under ideal conditions. They are measuring the generatable amount of energy, that would be reached under permanent and full use of all capacities of all power plants. In practice this isn't possible, because e.g. solar collectors are less efficient unter clouds. Also wind- and water-power plants are not always operating under full load. All these values are only useful in relation to other energy sources or countries.

Energy sourcetotal
in Bhutan
in Bhutan
per capita
in Bhutan
per capita
Fossil fuels142.96 m kWh1,0 %70,0 %187.35 kWh20,306.77 kWh
Nuclear power0.00 kWh0,0 %9,0 %0.00 kWh2,610.87 kWh
Water power14.15 bn kWh99,0 %7,0 %18,547.38 kWh2,030.68 kWh
Renewable energy0.00 kWh0,0 %14,0 %0.00 kWh4,061.35 kWh
Total production capacity14.30 bn kWh100,0 %100,0 %18,734.73 kWh29,009.67 kWh
Actual total production7.88 bn kWh55.1 %43.0 %10,330.34 kWh12,475.65 kWh

Usage of renewable energies

Renewable energies include wind, solar, biomass and geothermal energy sources. This means all energy sources that renew themselves within a short time or are permanently available. Energy from hydropower is only partly a renewable energy. This is certainly the case with river or tidal power plants. Otherwise, numerous dams or reservoirs also produce mixed forms, e.g. by pumping water into their reservoirs at night and recovering energy from them during the day when there is an increased demand for electricity. Since it is not possible to clearly determine the amount of generated energy, all energies from hydropower are displayed separately.

In 2015, renewable energies accounted for around 86.9 percent of actual total consumption in Bhutan. The following chart shows the percentage share from 1990 to 2015:

Renewable energy Bhutan