Presidential republic
Independent since 1821

Republic of Peru
Local name:
South America
1,285,220 km²
Peru on the world map


Peru is a country on the Pacific Coast of South America. The land has a total area of 1,285,220 km² (496,226 mi²) and a total coastline of 2,414 km (1,500.0 mi). This land area is approximately 185% of the area of Texas. Peru is thus one of the largest countries in the Americas and the 20th biggest in the world. A considerable share of the inhabitants (79%) belongs to the urban population. Almost every third resident lives in Lima.

Peru lies at an average elevation of 1555 m above sea level and is therefore one of the highest countries in the world. The highest mountain peak (Nevado Huascarán) is at 6,768 meters. The country has about 40 islands. There are direct national borders with the five neighboring countries Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador. The distance between New York City and the Capital Lima is about 5,880 km (3,654 mi).


Life expectancy females:
Ø 76.8 years
Birth rate:
17.8 ‰
Death rate:
7.3 ‰
49.5% : 50.5%

Population pyramid

Population pyramid Peru 2021
The currency in Peru is the Nuevo sol (PEN).
1 Sol is divided into 100 Céntimos.
Status: 03/22/2023
1 US dollar = 3.82 Sols
1 Sol = 0.26 US dollar

The climate in Peru

In Peru, as in all equatorial countries, there is a tropical climate. Unlike in Europe or the USA, there is almost no difference between the seasons. The daylight hours vary little, and the temperature differences between summer and winter are also lower. Depending on the season, the average daytime temperatures range between 22 and 27 degrees. In some parts of the country, the temperature rises to 31 °C. In the colder months, and depending in the region, the temperature drops to 14 °C in a month's average.

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures
Average daytime and nighttime temperatures in Peru


Official languages:
Spanish, Quechua, Aymara

Mother tongueDistribution
Spanish84.1 %
Quechua13.0 %
Aymara1.7 %
Ashaninka0.3 %
other0.9 %


Roman Catholics81.3%



GDP:223.25 bn $
Exportations:66.10 bn $
Importations:58.61 bn $
Tourism receipts:1.00 bn $
Unemployment rate:5.1 %
Inflation rate:4.27 %
Corruption index:36 (bad)
Energy consumption:44.6 bn kWh

According to the definition from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Peru is a developing country because of its lower economic performance.

In terms of revenues, the Philippines still ranks 102nd in the world and, with an average annual income of 6,460 USD is one of the upper middle-income countries.

Land use

1% Urban areas:16,426 km²
19% Agricultural areas:244,320 km²
57% Forest:726,278 km²
0% Water areas:5,220 km²
23% Others:298,196 km²



Roadways:140,672 km
Railways:1,854 km
Waterways:8,808 km
Commercial harbors:98

Most important cities

Lima / CapitalCentral Coast9,752,000
ArequipaSouth Coast841,000
CallaoCentral Coast813,000
TrujilloNorth Coast and Northern Sierra747,000
ChiclayoNorth Coast and Northern Sierra577,000
IquitosAmazon Basin438,000
HuancayoCentral Sierra377,000
PiuraNorth Coast and Northern Sierra325,000
ChimboteNorth Coast and Northern Sierra317,000
CuscoSouthern Sierra and Altiplano312,000
PucallpaAmazon Basin311,000
TacnaSouth Coast280,000
IcaSouth Coast247,000
JuliacaSouthern Sierra and Altiplano246,000
SullanaNorth Coast and Northern Sierra161,000
Chincha AltaSouth Coast153,000
HuánucoCentral Sierra148,000
AyacuchoSouthern Sierra and Altiplano140,000
CajamarcaNorth Coast and Northern Sierra135,000
PunoSouthern Sierra and Altiplano117,000
TumbesNorth Coast and Northern Sierra109,000
ChosicaCentral Coast89,000
HuarazNorth Coast and Northern Sierra87,000
Cerro de PascoCentral Sierra79,000
San IsidroCentral Coast68,000

Political indicators

(Based on the "Worldwide Governance Indicators" project of the World Bank)

Political stability:
Rule of law:
Regulatory quality:
Voice accountability:
Death penalty:only for serious crimes

Existing trade agreements


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